Goddess Adya Kali is one among the Dasha Mahavidya. Adya Kali Jayanti falls on Amavasya day of Kartika month. On this day, Maa Kaali is invoked to receive her blessings. Adya Shakti means a primal power or a primal energy. Devotees recognise Adya Kali as Goddess Adya, and she represents Goddess Durga, Kali, and Parvati who are the creators as well as nurturers. Adya Kali is the eternal power, and it is believed that all the deities in the Hindu religion are manifestations or representations of Adya Kali. Adya Kali is worshipped with grand fanfare in many parts of India, particularly in West Bengal. Although Adya Kali and Kali share the same core, their manifestations are different.
Significance of Adya Kali Jayanti:
Goddess Kali is the first incarnation of Goddess Durga. Adya Kali Jayanti is celebrated in various parts of India in different forms. She is known as Meenakshi Amman in Tamil Nadu, as Amba Devi in Gujarat, as Vaishno Devi in Jammu and Kashmir, as Attukul Amma in Kerala. She is depicted wearing human skull of the slaughtered demons around her neck. The name Adya Kali is supremely symbolic which means the primordial darkness. It is the relentless darkness from which light emanates and from which everything is born.
As per beliefs, Goddess Kali was born from Durga's eyebrow.
According to the holy scriptures, demons, Shumbha and Nishumbha created havoc in heaven. It had brought chaos all around the heaven and earth. The Gods were unable to defeat the demons. Hence, they took help from the Goddess Durga. Kali was born as Kal Bhoi Nashini as an incarnation of Durga to save the universe from the evil forces. Accompanied by Yogini and Dakini, Kali Maa began killing spree and slaughtered the demons. But the condition had become extremely chaotic. Kali had killed any fellow who came in her path. Her unconscious act was causing the death of many innocent lives. To pacify her, Lord Shiva placed himself under her feet. As Goddess Kali stepped on Shiva's chest, she repented her act and spilled her tongue out in astonishment. Since then, this day is celebrated as Shyama Puja or Kali Puja.
Rituals and Celebrations:
Brahmanical worship of Goddess Kali includes Puja preparations at households. Kali is worshipped as Adya Shakti Kali. On Adya Kali Jayanti, the deity is beautified and worshipped. Devotees worship Goddess Kali with flowers, fruits, sweets, rice, incense sticks and lamp. Devotees recite the Adya Stotram to appease the Mother Kali and seek her blessings. Adya Stotram was composed by Annada Thakur in a dream. It is believed that Goddess Kali narrated Adya Stotram to Annada Thakur when she came to visit him under the disguise of his aunt. The Adya Stotra is a part of the ancient Bramha Yamala Tantra which in turn is a part of the ancient Agama scriptures. A temple has been dedicated to Adya Kali in Dakshineswar, Adyapeeth, West Bengal.